Nepal is a mountainous country surrounded by the biggest countries in the world, India and China. Due to geographical conditions and political instability, the economic situation of the country has not developed enough, and as such it is classified as a Least Developed Country.
It is very essential to ensure that every pregnant woman (particularly rural and poor women) delivered their child in a health facility receives essential quality care. Maternal deaths can be reduced by preventing unwanted pregnancies through effective family planning programs, ensuring high coverage of quality care at birth and during the postnatal period, provision of emergency obstetric care services and availability of SBA. Universal coverage with high quality care in all essential interventions across the continuum of care is required for reducing all preventable maternal deaths. Providing high quality services means doing the right thing, at the right time and quality care demands the availability of HRH with the rights skills, and an enabling environment (including essential drugs and devices), health institutions on strategic location and community participation.
There is a need to build a community awareness of the necessity of community planning and accountability for access to health facilities for women, newborns and children during emergencies to give birth in a health facility. Public awareness needs to be increased with an especial emphasis for including male involvement - of danger signs, care-seeking, and postnatal visits, with special emphasis on adolescent girls, pregnant women and young couples. Effective implementation of emergency fund (for example ambulance services) in province and local government for maternal and child health as provisioned in public health Act.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging as the leading cause of death globally and also in the South East Asia region due to many social determinants like unhealthy lifestyles, globalization, trade and marketing, demographic and economic transitions. The change in the status of these determinants has affected behavioral and metabolic risk factors of the general population to the NCDs.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), Chronic non-infectious respiratory diseases (like COPD), Cancers and Diabetes Mellitus are referred as essential non-communicable disease with well-established common modifiable risk factors. Oral health, Mental Health and Road traffic Injuries are other NCDs in Nepal that has been growing at an alarming rate posing as major threats to public health.
Behaviours like tobacco use, harmful use of alcohol, intake of high proportion of unhealthy diet like - consuming less fruits and vegetables, high salt and trans-fat consumption, and physical inactivity are the common modifiable risk factors of NCDs while overweight and obesity, raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose and abnormal blood lipids are the metabolic risk factors. Such behaviours are determined by social structures, economic disparities, and market forces that entice the people into buying and consuming unhealthy products such as ultra-processed foods and drinks, among other examples. Indoor air pollution is another important modifiable behavioral risk factor for the region and the country.
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